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  • The data consists of identified exposed objects subject to flooding risk from the Tsho Rolpa Lake. The Tsho Rolpa Lake is the largest moraine-dammed proglacial lake in Nepal and was identified as one of the country’s most dangerous glacier lakes with a high possibility of outburst. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The dataset consists of the transcripts of expert inputs considering how the conceptual thinking for both ‘smart’ and ‘natural or biophilic’ cities could combine to inform future urban discourses and critically reviewed a set of emerging characteristics that described the interface between these alternative discourses. These inputs include informed practice-based perspectives on themes identified in the literature and comparative assessments, testing the integrating principles identified in the research against business as usual silo approaches, which helped refine the research outcomes. Expert inputs were used to inform the identification of new ways of integrating urban futures discourses, in particular shaping the Smart City – Natural City interface, using Birmingham, UK as a case study. The files include the underlying data provided by a cohort of multi-disciplinary [anonymised] experts who contributed to the research; • the record of the group or table outputs from the Innovation Workshop of 12th September 2017 • copies of photographs of the collective ‘stickies’ contributions at the workshop • the original transcript record of the semi-structured interview conversations • records of Group telephone or meeting conversations • ‘work in progress’ collations of comments received; generated to share with contributors and with co-authors Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The products capture current land use/cover for four areas of interest in Corridor Ankeniheny Zahamena (CAZ) generated based on very high resolution imagery (SPOT 6). Field-based training and validation data were used and supervised classifications created using Random Forest classifier. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The data describes future land use projections at 1 km^2 resolution developed by CRAFTY-GB. For each of six Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP-RCP) scenarios, gridded land use maps for Great Britain are provided, each as a stacked raster file with seven bands representing land use at each decadal timestep, from 2020 to 2080. CRAFTY-GB is a new agent-based model of the British land system operating at a 1 km^2 resolution and based on a broad range of available land system data . The model is based on linked UK-RCP climate scenarios and UK-SSPs socio-economic pathway (SSP) scenarios, based on global SSPs developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It extrapolates the impact of these on the British Land system at decadal timesteps from 2020-2080. Full details about this dataset can be found at

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    The Catlin Arctic Survey created a unique collaboration between scientists and explorers to undertake field research in the Arctic. Each Catlin Survey comprised of two principle parts. The 'Catlin Ice Base', which was a stationary scientific research base located off the northern coast of Canada; and the 'Explorer Team', comprising of a small long-range specialist team moving on foot from close to the North Geographic Pole towards Greenland. The Catlin Ice Base consisted of temporary polar shelters and tents erected on the sea ice off the coast of Ellef Ringnes Island, Nunavut, Canada, 78°46'27" N / 104°42'49" W. In 2010 and 2011 during the second and third Catlin Arctic Surveys, scientists and explorers examined the upper layers of the Arctic Ocean's water column. In parallel, scientists from the US, UK and Canada conducted experiments at a unique research station on the frozen Arctic Ocean with the support of experienced polar explorers and guides. These datasets (as .xls and .csv files) resulted from the work carried out at the Ice Base. Here a group, of up to 10 scientists and operational staff, were able to collect and analyze samples from under the sea ice as well as deploy heavier instrumentation up to a depth of 200 metres. Scientists at the ice base made measurements of temperature, salinity, total alkalinity, DIC, nutrients, chlorophyll, zooplankton community structure and physiological responses to elevated pCO2 levels. The Catlin Arctic Survey has enabled the monitoring, measuring and collection of information to improve scientific understanding of the processes involved in, and the impacts of, climate change. The scientists researched how changes within the seawater beneath the floating sea ice may be affecting powerful ocean currents that influence prevailing climate and weather patterns worldwide. These data were collected as part of the Catlin Arctic Survey funded by Catlin Ltd. and coordinated by Geo Mission Ltd. Participants were supported by a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) UK Fellowship, PML Lord Kingsland Fellowship, Ralph Brown Expedition Grant from the Royal Geographical Society, NERC's National Centre for Earth Observation, World Wildlife Fund for Nature and Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

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    This dataset collection comprises solid and liquid coastal freshwater fluxes from land ice in Greenland, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Svalbard and Iceland. Tundra runoff from all these land areas is also included. The fluxes have been routed to coastal grid cells around the margins of the land areas. The fluxes are provided in three fields: tundra, surface runoff over ice, solid ice discharge (icebergs, for Greenland only). The data are on a 5 km polar stereographic projection with a monthly time step and are in a netcdf format. Detailed description of the derivation of the data can be found in an associated paper in JGR-Oceans: Bamber J.L, et al "Land ice freshwater budget of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Part I: Data, methods and results". This dataset contains monthly resolution runoff and annual resolution discharge (at monthly time steps) from 01/01/1958 to 31/12/2016.

  • This code uses pathway modelling to look at correlations of exotic plant invasion in tropical rainforest remnants and continuous sites. Partial least squares path-modelling looks at correlations between latent variables that are informed by measured variables. The code examines the relative influence of landscape-level fragmentation, local forest disturbance, propagule pressure, soil characteristics and native community composition on invasion. The total native community is examined first. Then subsets of the native community are modelled separately, adult trees, tree saplings, tree seedlings and ground vegetation. The relationship between the native and exotic communities was tested in both directions. Full details about this application can be found at

  • The R code "carbon_stock_calculations.R" estimates aboveground carbon stocks for 49 plots in 14 fragmented forest sites and 4 continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, using the vegetation dataset 'Vegetation and habitat data for fragmented and continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2017'. The 14 fragmented sites were all in Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil-certified oil palm plantations, and are hereafter termed 'conservation set-asides'. The code also estimates the aboveground carbon stocks of oil palm plantations for comparison. The R code "analyses_and_figures.R" runs analyses and makes figures of aboveground carbon stocks and associated plant diversity for these sites, as presented in Fleiss et al. (2020) This R code was created in order to investigate the following: (1) to establish the value of conservation set-asides for increasing oil palm plantation aboveground carbon stocks; (2) to establish whether set-asides with high aboveground carbon stocks can have co-benefits for plant diversity; (3) to compare the carbon stocks and vegetation structure of conservation set-asides with that of continuous forest, including assessing tree regeneration potential by examining variation in seedling density; (4) to examine potential drivers of variation in aboveground carbon stocks of conservation set-asides (topography, degree of fragmentation, and soil parameters); (5) to scale-up the estimates of the aboveground carbon stocks of conservation set-asides, in order to predict average carbon stocks of oil palm plantations with and without set-asides, and for varying coverage of set-asides across the plantation. Full details about this application can be found at

  • This dataset contains records for vegetation in 49 plots across 14 fragmented forest sites and 4 continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Living vegetation and deadwood were surveyed in two or three 0.28-ha plots in each of the eighteen sites. In addition to vegetation data, the dataset contains topsoil parameters, measurements of forest structure, and metrics of the degree of forest fragmentation in the landscape surrounding the plots. These data were collected in order to conduct studies examining (1) the factors supporting invasion of exotic plant species into fragmented forest areas; and (2) the value of conservation set-asides for carbon storage and associated plant diversity in oil palm plantations. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Repeat electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements were conducted over four sites to capture the changing resistivity of the soil throughout the agricultural growing season, with measurements taken in Spring, Summer, and Autumn to detect the change between the construction, production, and post-harvest stages of the crop. Initial measurements were undertaken in April/May, Summer measurements in June/July, and final measurements in September 2021. Full details about this dataset can be found at