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Southern Ocean Atmospheric Photochemistry Experiment 2 (SOAPEX-2): Atmospheric Constituents Concentration Measurements from Cape Grim, Tasmania
Southern Ocean Atmospheric Photochemistry Experiment 2 (SOAPEX-2) is primarily an experiment to study atmospheric cleansing by free radicals in extremely clean and slightly perturbed tropospheric air and focuses on a field campaign carried out at Cape Grim, Tasmania in January-February 1999. The dataset contains concentrations of atmospheric constituents such as halocarbons, hydrocarbons, methane, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide. This dataset is public. Oxidation of almost all trace gases released into the atmosphere is initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals, produced mainly from the action of near-UV light on ozone in the presence of water vapour. Increasing evidence suggests that the oxidative capacity of the troposphere has been perturbed in recent years due to the emission of gases such as methane, carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from man-made sources. These perturbations may be causing changes in the natural atmospheric composition, for instance increasing tropospheric levels of the greenhouse gas ozone, which has important consequences for climate and human health. It is also possible that the rates of oxidation of gases such as methane, and production of sulphate aerosols from the oxidation of sulphur dioxide, have been modified. Taken together a change in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere has many consequences for the long-term stability of the Earth's climate. SOAPEX-2 builds upon the success of the original SOAPEX-I experiment conducted at Cape Grim in January/February 1995 which resulted in the publication of several papers to the literature on the relationship between concentrations of peroxy radicals and uv light levels in different NOx concentration regimes, and the consequences for ozone production and loss in the marine boundary layer. SOAPEX-2 is a more complete experiment with the addition of atmospheric measurements of key new species including hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, halogen oxide and nitrate radicals, non methane hydrocarbons, speciated aldehydes, PAN and halocarbons. SOAPEX-2 involves four groups of tropospheric scientists from the UK and Australia, namely the Universities of East Anglia, Leeds and Leicester along with CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Research Organisation), Melbourne. The clean air photochemistry experiment is an essential prerequisite for experiments carried out in more polluted atmospheres. The data obtained is allowing rigorous testing of basic mechanisms which describe the behaviour of free radical concentrations at differing light levels, water vapour and nitrogen oxide concentrations, etc. The measurements performed in this project are expected to yield valuable information on chemical changes that are affecting the oxidative capacity of the global troposphere and, therefore, the rate at which the global atmosphere can cleanse itself of pollutants. The measurements are also highly relevant to the situation in more polluted atmospheres, where increased levels of confidence in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry is an essential prerequisite to any legislation designed to reduce regional and global pollution. The specific objectives of SOAPEX-2 are: * To quantitatively test fast photochemical theory in clean air. * To examine perturbations from the baseline situation in polluted continental air containing more complex mixtures of free radical sources and sinks * Investigation of the balance between tropospheric O3 production and destruction in differing NOx regimes * A test of instrumental performance * Testing of models used to simulate chemical processes in the lower atmosphere which are deficient in their description of boundary layer processes
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument makes accurate measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget. It was specifically designed to be mounted on a geostationary satellite and was carried onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellite operated by European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The first GERB instrument, GERB-2, was onboard Meteosat Second Generation satellite, MSG-1, and began transmitting data on 12th December 2002. GERB-1 was launched onboard MSG-2 on 21st December 2005. Future GERB sensors units are planned for MSG-3 and MSG-4. This dataset collection contains the incident and reflected solar radiation together with thermal radiation emitted by the Earth's atmosphere. The amount of solar radiation absorbed is the difference between the the incoming and reflected solar radiation and is the energy source of the Earth-atmosphere system. The thermal radiation emitted by the atmosphere is the only sink of energy so, therefore, the budget is the difference between the two. Seasonal changes in the ERB are mainly due to changes in incoming solar radiation but there is a large amount of variability on timescales of hours to days, mainly due to clouds. The global coverage and sampling frequency required for accurate climate models requires that ERB measurements are made from satellites.
RAPID The Role of Air-Sea Forcing in Causing Rapid Changes in the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation model output
"The Role of Air-Sea Forcing in Causing Rapid Changes in the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation" project was a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) RAPID Climate Change Research Programme project (Round 1 - NER/T/S/2002/00427 - Duration 16 Feb 2004 - 15 Oct 2007) led by Dr Simon Josey of National Ocenaography Centre, with co-investigators also at the National Oceanography Centre. This dataset collections contains analysis of coupled model output of surface forcing variability in ocean circulation. The main aims of this proposal were to determine the role that surface forcing variability plays in causing rapid changes in the ocean circulation and to examine the effect of such changes on climate. These issues are addressed through a combined analysis of coupled model output and observational datasets. The focus of the analysis was in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) although the results have been interpreted in the broader context of the global climate system. Variations in the air-sea fluxes of surface heat and freshwater have the potential to cause rapid changes in the ocean circulation eg through their influence on deep convection. However, the relationship between surface forcing variability and rapid changes in the ocean remains to be properly determined; our goal was to significantly improve understanding of this area. Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) was a £20 million, six-year (2001-2007) programme for the Natural Environment Research Council. The programme aimed to improve the ability to quantify the probability and magnitude of future rapid change in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean's Thermohaline Circulation
Operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Output from the Global Atmospheric Part of the Met Office Unified Model (UM)
This dataset contains operational NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) output from the global atmospheric part of the Met Office global atmospheric Unified Model. The Met Office Unified Model is the numerical modelling system developed and used at the Met Office (it is run operationally for weather forecasting). It is 'seamless' in that different configurations of the same model are used across all time and space scales. This model can produce several datasets of which CEDA holds the following: Met Office Global Atmospheric Model data Met Office North Atlantic/European (NAE) Mesoscale Model data The Met Office Global Atmospheric Model has 25 km resolution with 70 vertical levels. It Covers the entire globe and 144 hours in the future twice a day. The Global model provides boundary information for the NAE model, for which additional shorter runs (48 hours) are produced twice a day. The model is kept close to the real atmosphere using hybrid 4D-Var data assimilation of observations. 17km resolution with 70 vertical levels is now also available. Analyses and first forecast steps are stored to give a time resolution of 1 hour up to 6 hours after each analysis timestep. The NWP global output archive starts on 1 January 2012, and is ongoing.
ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) Project: Meteorology, Composition and Particulate Loading Measurements of London's urban atmosphere
ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) Project was a collaborative scientific project involving several academic institutions in the UK, which aimed to set up air pollution monitoring sites alongside meteorological measurements to investigate boundary layer pollution across London. This dataset collection contains meteorology, composition and particulate loading measurements of London's urban atmosphere. The ambition of ClearfLo was to provide long-term integrated measurements of the meteorology, composition and particulate loading of London’s urban atmosphere, made at street level and at elevated sites, complemented by modelling to improve predictive capability for air quality. ClearfLo was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) for three years from Jan 2010, and was coordinated by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS).
The model data outputs from the Atmospheric Chemistry & Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)
The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) was organized under the auspices of Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate (AC&C), a project of International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) and Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) under International Geosphere Bisosphere Programme (IGBP) and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACC-MIP) consists of several sets of simulations that have been designed to facilitate useful evaluation and comparison of the AR5 (Intergovernmental Committee on Climate Change Assessment Report 5) transient climate model simulations. The proposed list of experiments and diagnostics was aimed at providing necessary information for scientific studies spanning the AC&C interests. This dataset collection contains chemistry and climate model measurements.
Data from HasISST contains measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) and also global sea ice coverage (HadISST1.1). Dataset include: - Global Ocean Surface Temperature (HadISST_1.1_SST), a set of SST data in monthly 1° area grids, for 1870 to October 2015. - Global sea-Ice content, (HadISST_1.1_ICE), monthly 1° grids of ice coverage for 1870 to October 2015. In situ sea surface observations and satellite derived estimates at the sea surface are included in the analysis. SST bucket corrections have been applied to gridded fields from 1870 through 1941. And a blend of satellite AVHRR (for SST), SSMI (for ice) and observations are used in the modern periods. This data product replaces the GISST/GICE (Global Sea Surface Temperature/Global sea-Ice content) data sets ended in February 2003. The data were provided by the Hadley Centre (Met Office). Updates are available from the Hadley Centre.
Meteosat Geostationary Satellites First Generation: Visible, Infra-Red and Water Vapour Images over Europe
Meteosat-7 and its predecessors were the first generation of earth observation dedicated geostationary satellites located at 36000 km above the intersection of the Equator and the Greenwich Meridian. Although superseded by MSG-1 (renamed Meteosat-8) in 2005, Meteosat-7 remained as back-up at 0o longitude until 14th June 2006. Meteosat-7 will be moved to 63oE longitude to continue coverage of the Indian Ocean and take over from Meteosat-5. Meteosat-7 was launched by the European Space Agency and operated by Eumetsat. This dataset collection contains visible, water vapour, thermal and infra-red images of the North Atlantic Ocean, Europe and North Africa from the Meteosat geostationary satellite. Images are archived from 11th November 1999 to June 2006. These images are public. Data were collected every half hour in three wavelength channels for visible, infra-red and water vapour images.
Collection of Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Coverage Data and Maps as part of the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas Plus (GOSTAplus)
The Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas Plus (GOSTAplus) contains maps of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) climatologies and anomalies, Night Marine Air temperature climatologies and anomalies and Sea Ice coverage spanning the period 1851-1995. Dataset includes gridded, global SSTs from 1951-1990 and Sea Ice coverage from 1903 to 1994. The data are provided by the Met Office. Updated version of some data also available on request.
European Facility for Airborne Research in Environmental and Geo-sciences 2 (EUFAR 2) is an Integrating Activity of the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission following three previous contracts under FP5, FP6 and FP7, bringing together 24 European institutions and organisations involved in airborne research, operating 18 instrumented aircraft and providing access to 3 hyperspectral instruments. To facilitate wide access and to maximise the potential of the valuable scientific data collected during the EUFAR FP7 projects (2008-2018), data are available through a single archive at BADC. The data itself is stored either in an accessible online archive operated by the aircraft operator (eg NERC-ARSF, FAAM-BAE-146) or lodged in the BADC EUFAR archive. Data include measurements by airborne in situ atmospheric instuments and hyperspectral instruments operated on board the aircraft of the EUFAR fleet during projects funded under the transnational access part of EUFAR and during training events. The data available will vary from aircraft to aircraft depending on the instruments on board and the aims and flight patterns for each project. During the first FP7 project (EUFAR 2008-2013) thirteen aircraft and one additional instrument (APEX) were involved in 43 projects including a collaboration of data from volcanic ash flights following the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajokull, in April 2010. These projects are A-NEW, ACEMED, ADDRESSS, AEGEAN-GAME, AIMWETLAB, AIRES-CZM, ALISA, ARMSRACE, BIOHYPE, BLLATE1, BLLATE2, DeInVader, DeMinTIR, DRAMAC, EDOCROS, Eyjafjallajokull, GEOMAD, HABlakes, HYMEDECOS-Erosion, HyMedEcos-Gradients, HyMountEcos, HYMOWEB, HyperForest, HYPERSTRESS, i-WAKE2, ICARE-QAD, ICELAND_DEBRISFLOWS, IMROM, LADUNEX, MORE, RAIN4DUST, REFLEX, SEDMEDHY, SONATA, SRMGlaciers, SVALBD_PGLACIAL2, T-MAPP-FP7, TETRAD, UR-TIR, ValCalHyp, VESSAER, WaLiTemp. All expected data from these flight have now been archived. EUFAR2 (2014-2018) is collecting data for these projects: AHSPECT, DEHESHYRE, HIDHAZ_N_ICELAND, HILBILLY, HOLUHRAUN_HAZ, HYMOSENS2, HYPPOS, ISOTHERM, MEDHY2CON, SAVEX, SWAMP, URBSENSE. More will be added as they become available.